Dual function molecular additive, power 3D perovskite low attenuation high stable electroluminescence

The three-dimensional calcium-titanite has been proven to be an effective strategy for achieving high brightness efficient light emitting diode (LED). However, most of the three-dimensional calcium-titanium mine-emitting diodes still have serious efficiency attenuation.

Here, the author uses FAPBI3 as the model system, and the main cause of 3D perovskite-type LED-type LED efficiency and degradation is the ion migration of defects and electrical stress. By introducing a dual-function molecule 3-chlorobenzymamine additive in a perovskite precursor solution, the deleterious effect can be significantly inhibited by the growth and defect passivation of high jaws. This method produces a bright near-infraredcium-type LED having a peak external quantum efficiency of 16.6%, maintaining 80% of its peak at a high current density of 460 mA cm? 2, corresponding to 300 W SR? 1 m 2 The high brightness. In addition, at a constant current density of 100 mA-cm? 2,The device displays a half-life record of 49 h. Related papers are published in the nano letters journal in the nano letters journal in the nano letters journal in the Nano Letters Journal.

Paper link:


Metal halide calcium-type light-emitting diode (LED) is widely concerned in lighting and display field due to its processability, flexibility, high brightness, good color purity and potential low cost. The diversity of perovskite provides huge opportunities for improving device performance. For example, three dimensional (3D), quasi-quantum dotted titanium ore increased the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the LED to 20%. However, although huge progress has been made in terms of device performance, the stability of devices is the main obstacle to the practical application of calcium titanium mine type LED. It is generally believed that ion migration of the perovskite layer is one of the main challenges of stabilizing calcium titanium-producing diodes. By adding large organic cation, quadriterous calcium-titanium-titanite having multiple quartz wells can inhibit ion migration and improve the stability of the device under electric field. In principle, the Russian compound in 3D perovskite is not as serious as low-dimensional calcium-titanium, which can cause LEDs with high efficiency and high brightness. However, in many perovskite devices, effective energy transfer cannot be observed due to Joule heating.

In this work, it is considered that the effective launch of FAPBI3 perovskite LEDs is mainly due to defects and ion migration, which disrupts the stability of the device. We further show that the addition of double-functional molecular 3-chlorobenzylamine (3Cl-BA) in the precursor solution can significantly inhibit harmful effects. This method can make the peak EQE of the perovskite LED of 16.6%, the electroluminescence (EL) peak is 803 nm, and the half maximum width is 42 nm, and the current density J80 can be defined as EQE to drop 80% of the peak value. The current density increases to increase a quantitative stage and T50 (half-life) ratio of three orders of magnitude higher than that control the perovskite LED. (文: Love Xinhua Luo Xing)

Figure 1.3Cl-BA group FAPBI3 light emitting diode of photoelectric characteristics.

figure 2. The efficiency of the LED based on FAPBI3 is reduced.

Figure 3. Characterization of FAPBI3 film in Figure 3.3Cl-BA group.

What are the universities of Huawei? As can be seen from the data, these colleges are national tools

What are the universities of Huawei? As can be seen from the data, these colleges are national tools

The college entrance examination has ended, many parents and candidates have begun to choose universities in accordance with the examination, and prepare for future volunteers. When choosing college, parents should pay more attention to school strength and social recognition, which will have a significant impact on the future employment prospects in children. The author will introduce you to 15 schools in the current signature of Huawei. These universities are rich in profits in the country, and graduates are also recognized by other outstanding companies. Candidates should pay attention.

The above table shows which 15 universities have received the most supported by Huawei. We can see that Xi’an University of Electronic Technology is a school that admits the number of students. Huawei admitted 556 students in this school, which is much more than many 985 universities. This shows the strength of Xi’an University of Electronic Science and Technology. The university has several professional disciplines such as computer science and engineering, electronic science and engineering, intelligent science and engineering, communication technology and information security. These are what Huawei and other Internet communications companies need. Therefore, the employment opportunities of Xi’an University of Electronic Science and Technology graduates are also very extensive and welcomed by large companies.

In addition, the second Zhejiang University and the third Southeast University have also obtained this award. Zhejiang University has maintained rapid development, and all discipline strength is balanced, and the engineering construction is striving for excellence. Zhejiang University has been rated as the fourth good university in China and has won the favor of Huawei and other companies.

Southeast University has developed steadily in recent years and is known for its engineering courses. The main discipline of the university is electrical engineering and technology, civil engineering and electrical engineering and automation. This is why Huawei also likes graduates from Southeast University when choosing people.

What is unexpected is that Tsinghua University and the two Chinese top universities in Peking University are only ranked 13th and 18th in Huawei’s enrollment. This is a bit uneasy. However, in reality, Huawei’s recruitment work is mainly concentrated in recruitment communications and technical professionals. Therefore, many science, technology and engineering universities are in the list. To a certain extent, the lower enrollment rate of Tsinghua and Peking University is also related to their intentions of their graduates. Huawei company is very high for their graduates, and many of them are working hard, often overtime. Therefore, students from famous universities such as Tsinghua University and Peking University, because of more job opportunities, so broad. They tend to choose other intensity and high income.

Huawei recruits the most players in these 15 schools. These schools have made significant contributions to the country’s development, which can be said to be a huge wealth in the country. An excellent company like Huawei also favors graduates, so the elderly applicant can pay attention to them.

"14th Five-Year Plan" period informationization and industrialized depth fusion construction drawing

On December 1st, Lanzhou.com, on November 30th, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued "14th Five-Year" Informationization and Industrial Deep Intelement Development Plan "(hereinafter referred to as" planning "), finalized the" 14th Five-Year Plan "period Development goals and specific paths, express the pace of digital transformation in key industries such as raw materials, equipment manufacturing, consumer goods and electronic information, and lead operations, industrial Internet platform promotion projects, industrial Internet platform promotion projects, industrial Internet platform promotion projects, industrial Internet platform promotion projects, industrial Internet platform promotion projects, industrial Internet platform promotion projects Increased action, and 5 key projects in digital upgrade operations in the industrial chain supply chain propolize.

"Plan" is clear, by 2025, informatization and industrialization achieve integration development in the wide range, deepest, and higher levels, the new generation of information technology accelerates penetration to the manufacturing industry, the transformation of manufacturing digital transformation is significantly accelerated, national The development index of the two-way fusion reached 105. The digital penetration rate of enterprise management reached 80%, and the penetration of digital research and development and design tools reached 85%. The critical process was 68%, and the industrial Internet platform penetration rate reached 45%.

The digital transformation of the manufacturing industry is the main task of the two fusion during the 14th Five-Year Plan. At the press conference held on the 30th, Xie Shaofeng, the Ministry of Information Technology Development Director Xie Shaofeng, who replied "Economic Report" reporter, the manufacturing digital transformation is a development stage of the two fusion of technical profound changes, and is currently the current The focus of the two integration, "Plan" makes special deployments on digital transformation, summarizing the "strong enterprises, grasp the key, thick foundation, and ecological".

Specifically, Xie Shaofeng said that it is necessary to fully promote digital transformation concepts, continuously enhance digital technology such as digital technology applications, software applications, data management, accelerate the digitalization of key links such as R & D design, manufacturing, management services. Breakthrough in key industries, industrial parks and industrial chain supply chains, with the critical number of scenes, and promote the digital transformation of the industrial Internet platform to enter the park in the park, and speed up the intersection of the industrial Internet platform. Gathering to improve digital technology innovation capabilities and application levels, vigorously develop industrial software and industrial App, strengthen security security, and consolidate the technical and industrial foundation of manufacturing digital transformation. At the same time, adhere to the standard leading, establish a digital transformation standard system for manufacturing with the two-way integration standards, and accelerate the scale of standards in key industries. Strengthen the construction of digital transformation service system, promote the digital transformation ecology of linkage and inclusion of universal sharing in the construction line.

As a key starting of the promotion of the depth of the two, the industry’s digital transformation, the industrial Internet will accelerate the promotion. "Plan" clearly, facing raw materials, equipment manufacturing, consumer goods, electronic information and other key industries and industrial collection area construction industry and regional special platform, construction of cloud simulation, digital twin, data processing and other technical platforms.

Feng Wei, director of the Ministry of Information Technology Development Division, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that it will promote production of production and research funds to strengthen cooperation, relying on carriers such as Industrial Internet Platform Innovation Cooperation, carry out key technical products joint research, accelerate R & D design, manufacturing, management, and business , Digital transformation of social resources such as logistics, sharing in linear convergence and platformization, and build new ecologies based on industrial Internet platforms. At the same time, a group of industrial Internet demonstration areas, industrial Internet industry demonstration bases, giving full play to local comparative advantages, and building highland development in industrial Internet. (Reporter Guo Qian)

Linux underlying command

The format of the command line is: User Name + Host Name + Current Work Contents

The command format of the input content is: command [- Short option / – long option] [parameter]

The command is "what to do", the option is "how to do", the parameter is "Who do"

For example: Changing the host name

2, common basic order

1, PWD command – Role: Display the full path to the current location

2, cd command – role: Go to a folder (a path)

Blue character represents a folder
Olive green character represents link file
Black character represents a text file
Represents the current path
.. Represents the previous layer path
~ On behalf of the current user’s home directory, the CD can be omitted

3, ls command – action: Display all content of the current folder

-l -> Displayed in the form of a long file (LS -L can be abbreviated as an LL command)
-A -> Show hidden files (in the beginning of the file)
-LA -> Show hidden files in the form of long files (LS -AL can be abbreviated into LL -A)
-r -> Recursive display file

4, man command – role: see the usage help document for a command

5, su command – action: Switch users

6, passwd command – Role: Set or change the user’s password

Notice:Only root users can change passwords using this command

7, Date Command – Role: Display or set the current system date and time

Date alone-> Details and time
Date +% T -> Show time
Date +% D -> Show Date
Date +% X% X -> Show Date and Time

8, file command – Role: View file type

Notice:Linux is kept to be customized, so don’t judge the file type with a file suffix name.

10, Head Command (Tail Command) – Role: Several lines of displaying files, default display 10 lines, can be used to specify the number of lines

11, CAT (TAC) command – the role: Show the entire document from the head to the tail (from the tail to the head)

12, wc command – action: number of rows, words, and characters in statistics file, corresponding to -l, -w, -c

13, History Command – Role: Displays the list of commands used before

You can find the previously used commands by the up and down keys.

15, init command – role: switch system status

Linux system everything is available! The path started with "/" isAbsolute pathThe path started with "/" isrelative path.

1, "/" The following important directory

  • / usr -> Store normal user command (/ usr / bin), for the system management command used by the root user, (/ usr / sbin), and data installed for software.
  • / etc -> Store the configuration file of the system server.
  • / dev -> store device files such as hard drives, CPUs, NICs and other data.
  • / HOME -> Ordinary users ‘home directory (or home directory), store regular users’ configuration files.
  • / root -> Root user’s home directory (or home directory), store the root user profile.
  • / boot -> The file, system kernel, etc. needed to store the system startup process.
  • / var -> Store dynamically changed files, such as log files, cache files, databases, etc.
  • / TMP -> Store temporary files, and files that have not accessed or visited within 10 days will be automatically deleted.
  • / Run -> Store processes that have been started with a system.

There are 4 links:

  • / bin -> / usr / bin -> Store orders used by ordinary users.
  • / sbin -> / usr / sbin -> Store the command used by the root user.
  • / lib -> / usr / lib -> library file
  • / lib64-> / usr / lib64

2, file-related commands

1, touch command – role: Create an empty text file

2, DD command – role: Create a large capacity space file

3, mkdir command – action: Create a folder
MKDIR -P creates multi-level directory

4, cp command – action: copy file
CP -R Copy Folder (-R recursive replication, that is, copy all directories in the current folder)

Notice:The old file will overwrite the new file when the old file is renamed with the new file.

5, mv command – action: mobile file, rename file

6, rm command – action: Delete file
RM -R Delete folder
RM -F forced deletion, does not prompt removal confirmation

7, echo command – action: Show out the parameters behind the command
Like the system variable, this variable can be lowercase.

Echo can also modify the text content, the syntax is: Echo "XXX">, >> FileName

3, use of wildcard

* Simple mode match -> string consisting of 0 or more characters
? Simple mode match -> any 1 character
{} Big Brand -> Bulk Execution Command, can be used continuously or nested

“ Anti-quoter command replacement


The characters from the single quotes are all appeared as ordinary characters.

4, redirect operator

One> is a redirector, role: overwrites write, the original data in the file is not retained

Two >> is an additional redirector, role: append writing, do not cover existing content, write directly in the end of the file, the original data reserved

In Linux, a running program (or process) needs to read the input from the keyboard through the shell and write the output to the terminal or file.
The process uses a number channel named file descriptor to get the input and transmit the output. All processes need at least three file descriptors at the beginning:Standard input (channel 0), standard output (channel 1), standard error (channel 2).

Role: Put the previous execution results to the command behind the duct.

Notice:When there is a redirect symbol in front of the pipe, the pipeline is added to add a TEE command.

Vim has four modes, namely:Insert mode, command mode, last line mode, and visualization mode.

1, insert mode

Press I / A / O / O -> to enter the editing state (insert mode)

2, command mode

Press ESC -> Exit Edit (Insert mode)

3, last line mode 4, visual mode

Vite’s project, the method of packaging npmjs.com using Rollup package

Build a production version – library mode

Detailed setting

Vue-cli comes with WebPack’s packaging method, the played bag is a bit big, and Vite comes with Rollup packaging, this way is very small, there are some instructions for the official website, so after learning, It is very convenient.

Vite’s library project can be divided into two categories: (I am divided into it)

  • One is a pure JS project without html;
  • One is a project that can bring HTML (template), such as a UI library.

The following introduces the preparation and packaging methods, in fact, in fact.

Use Vite to build a project, here is a simple example:

// main.js

The code is relatively simple, just a demo.

If you want to pack, you can only have an export file, so the interior code structure is set.

Pure JS is good, the export output is good, then what should I do with template? In fact, it is also the same.

Create a project with Vite to create a test file:

// t-text.vue

  • Template section:
  • Code part

This is a library based on the UI library, using two third-party plug-ins:

  • One is Element-Plus, which is loaded on demand;
  • One is the NF-UI-Controller library they do.

Then we set an entry file main.js

If there are many components, we must consider the structure, here is just an example.

After the code is written, you need to set up vite.config.js

  • Entry: Specifies the entry file to be packaged.
  • Name: Name of the package
  • FileName: The name of the package file, the default is UMD and ES two files.
  • SourceMap: Do you generate .map files, default is not generated, if you need it, you need to set it to true.
  • RollupOptions: If the project references a third-party plugin, you need to set it here. If you don’t set it, the source code of the third-party plugin will be packaged, so that the package file is getting bigger. The third party’s plug-in will exist alone.

Vite will pack it according to the settings here, and pack them into two modes:

  • UMD: After packaging, the code is very compact, small size, but it is not easy to read;
  • ES: The packaged code and the code we wrote are very like, easy to read, but the volume is large.

If the project uses a third-party plugin, you need to do settings in External:

After setting, the code of the third party plug-in will be referenced in the way in import.
If you don’t set it, you will use the code that is used in the third party plugin, and take it out as the internal code to be packaged together, so the volume of the package becomes bigger.

Setting package.json is mainly published as a description of the resource package, you need to set the properties according to NPM requirements:

If you do not want to install a third-party plug-in when installing the resource package, you need to remove DependenCies and DevDependenCIs, otherwise the third-party plug-in that is automatically installed.

After setting up, we can pack it with Yarn Build.

The packaged file is this style:


Brief introduction to the steps:

  • First to npmjs.com website registration account;
  • To register an email to activate the account;
  • Open the terminal and log in with npm login;
  • Published using NPM Publish;

The space is limited, and the details will not be introduced.

I like to use Yarn to install resource packages because the speed is faster.

Package.json Set the name of the installation is the name of the installation, so you have a good name and you can’t repeat with the existing name.

Will there be such a need?
When writing, the library project needs a development environment, while writing code, while running.
After writing, you need to pack it by library project.
Then there is a test environment, or demonstrate the environment?

If you build a project write test and demonstration, then it is a bit trouble, if you can get more in a project.
At this time, you need to set different Vite.config.js.

The way to use the comment before the change is more troublesome. Now found that Vite provides "Mode" way, allowing us to do different settings in Vite.config.js.

According to the official website, we can build multiple .env. * Files to store different "modes":

.ENV: Development environment (default)

.env.project: Test, demo

.env.lib: library package

After setting it, we will modify vite.config.js

In Vite.config.js, first define different defineconfig spare, then use the loadenv read mode value, return the corresponding defineconfig according to the mode.

Note: You need to set a folder of different outputs, otherwise it will be overwritten.

Set the executed command, add the desired mode.

This allows you to completely separate different environments. If there are other needs, you can also add more modes.

Changeable package command

In this way, all of them do not interfere, nor do you have any writes.

After the project package is released to npmjs.com, you can use https://unpkg.com/xxx to access, XXX indicates the name of the resource package, such as: